Individual assets, networks and systems that provide specific services to support the functioning of a community or society.


1. Infrastructure is commonly classified into hard, soft, and nature-based infrastructure. This distinguishes between tangible, intangible, and biotic systems. It may also be classified into social or economic infrastructure, referring to systems that are a blend of tangible and intangible elements.

2. Hard infrastructure consists of physical, engineered, or artisan-built infrastructure, networks, buildings, and other assets. See also "Infrastructure systems" and "Grey infrastructure".

3. Soft infrastructure includes governance structures, regulatory frameworks, management, systems and technologies, interdependencies within and between infrastructure sectors, and human factors, such as skills and knowledge. See also "Infrastructure systems".

4. Nature-based infrastructure refers to the natural environment’s resources and features that provide people, organizations and businesses with critical services or products directly, or through hard infrastructure. See also “Blue infrastructure” and “Green infrastructure”.

5. Social infrastructure refers to the hard, soft, and nature-based infrastructure that provides for human welfare such as social, cultural, educational, and health-related services.

6. Economic infrastructure refers to the hard, soft, and nature-based infrastructure that provides economic benefits through the production of goods and services. It includes provision of power, telecommunications, transportation, and financial services.

7. In common usage the term “infrastructure” usually refers to hard infrastructure. However, the concept of resilience implies a more nuanced appreciation of the different forms of infrastructure.

High Line in New York City

The High Line is a public park built on a former elevated railway line on the west side of Manhattan. It runs for 2.3km from Gansevoort Street in the Meatpacking District to 34th Street near the Javits Center. The park offers unique views of the city and is a popular destination for both tourists and locals. The High Line is an example of how infrastructure can be repurposed and transformed into a public space serving multiple functions, including providing green space in an urban environment, supporting local businesses and communities, and promoting sustainable transportation. It is also an example of innovative design, with its unique combination of landscapes, art installations, and seating areas that blend into the surrounding cityscape.