3. The impacts of cascading hazards are conditioned by the variable vulnerabilities of systems and their components. They are complex and multi-dimensional and are associated more with the magnitude of vulnerability than with that of the hazard (cf. Pescaroli & Alexander, 2015).
Modified from IPCC (2019). Annex I: Glossary [Weyer, N.M. (ed.)]. In: IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate [H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, M. Tignor, E. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegría, M. Nicolai, A. Okem, J. Petzold, B. Rama, N.M. Weyer (eds.)]. by DRI Lexicon Project Expert Panel, Febuary 2023
Reference for Note 4: Pescaroli, G., & Alexander, D. (2015). A definition of cascading disasters and cascading effects: Going beyond the “toppling dominos” metaphor. Planet@ risk, 3(1), 58-67.
Liquefaction of soil and incapacitation of ports following Haiti earthquake
Two major secondary hazards following the 2010 Haiti Earthquake were liquefaction and landslides, which resulted in increased damage and loss after the earthquake. When loosely packed and water-logged sediment at or near the ground surface is shaken because of earthquake forces, it loses its strength. This is called liquefaction. Most of the flatlands near Port-au-Prince are composed of loose sedimentary material and such soil composition favours liquefaction. Much of the liquefaction occurred around the international port and docks of Port-au-Prince, Haiti’s capital and most populous city. As a result of extensive liquefaction, lateral spreading occurred along the wharf. This resulted in the collapse of jetties, ramps and cranes, which were then submerged in the bay. Satellite imagery revealed that the south pier lost several sections and the north wharf completely collapsed, leaving important facilities in the water. With the seaports incapacitated, the transport of aid supplies and personnel for relief and recovery operations was greatly hampered. It took three months for the ports to resume partial operations.
- Basile, V. M. (2021, May 14). The causes and effects of the 2010 Haiti earthquake. ArcGIS StoryMaps. Retrieved on December 16, 2022.
- Petley, D. (2010, October 21). Earthquake-triggered liquefaction damage to the docks at Port-au-Prince in Haiti. The Landslide Blog. Retrieved on December 16, 2022.
- Booth, E., Saito, K., & Madabhushi, G. (2011). The Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 (a field report by EEFIT). The Institution of Structural Engineers. Retrieved on December 16, 2022.