Intensive disaster risk
The risk of high-severity, mid- to low-frequency disasters, mainly associated with major hazards.
1. Intensive disaster risk relates to large-scale infrastructure systems (complex infrastructure) which affect densely populated urban and rural areas and regions of systemic economic importance, as distinct from small-scale local infrastructure systems.
2. Intensive disaster risk is a characteristic of large cities or densely populated areas that are not only exposed to intense hazards such as strong earthquakes, active volcanoes, heavy floods, tsunamis or major storms but also have high levels of vulnerability to these hazards.
Reference for Note 2: UNDRR Sendai Framework Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction (2023).
Haiti Earthquake in 2010
The most powerful earthquake to hit Haiti in the past 200 years occurred on 12 January 2010. It had a magnitude of 7.3 on the Richter scale. Transport and Communications sub-sectors suffered losses leading to a reduction of 24.8 percent in growth. Services of information and communications technology companies were interrupted which hampered relief and recovery efforts. Streets were filled with rubble and many vehicles and buildings were destroyed or damaged. Utilities sub-sectors, such as electricity, gas and water, were also badly affected, with a subsequent 12.6 percent reduction in growth. Water supply to the metropolitan areas was interrupted owing to damages faced by the water production and distribution companies. There was a 19.8 percent reduction in growth of social sector services, such as health and education services. The destruction of health infrastructure caused a reduction in employment and revenue. Most of Haiti witnessed loss of income for teachers, school staff and small businesses that provided services to educational institutions. Many commercial buildings in the capital city center were destroyed along with equipment and material stock within them. Retail, which contributed to 25 percent of the GDP, was badly affected. The tourism sector not only suffered damage to hotels and restaurants, but also faced the threat of aftershocks. Rum, a popular export product of Haiti saw a sharp decline as its main producer in the country was badly affected, and 50 to 60 percent of the rum distilleries were affected.
Source: Government of Republic of Haiti. (2010). Annex to the Action Plan for National Recovery and Development of Haiti. UNEP. Retrieved December 13, 2022.