Infrastructure linkages

The notion that infrastructure systems may be highly interconnected and mutually dependent in complex ways. Interlinkages are a significant source of systemic risks, which are increasingly transboundary and transnational.

Linkages in Energy Infrastructure

The energy infrastructure linkages encompass a complex network that provides electricity to homes and businesses, including power plants, substations, transformers, and power lines. To ensure a reliable and resilient system, these components and their linkages need to be designed to withstand various stressors, including extreme weather and cyber-attacks. Some electric utilities generate their own electricity, while others purchase it from other utilities or a regional transmission reliability organization. The final stage of delivering electricity to consumers is through electric power distribution, which has become increasingly integrated with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. To maintain a stable power system, it is critical to ensure the resilience and reliability of energy infrastructure linkages.