Disaster risk drivers

Processes or conditions, related to the workings of a particular development model or practice, that influence the level of disaster risk by creating or increasing hazard, exposure and vulnerability, or reducing capacity.


1. Disaster risk drivers, also referred to as underlying disaster risk factors, include poverty, inequality and other conditions of inherent vulnerability; climate change and variability; unplanned and rapid urbanization; the lack of disaster risk considerations in land use; environmental and natural resource management; as well as compounding factors such as demographic change, non-disaster risk-informed policies; the inadequacies of regulations and incentives for private disaster risk reduction
investment; complex supply chains; the limited availability of technology; unsustainable uses of natural resources; pandemics and epidemics.
2. Disaster risk may result from one or more of the drivers mentioned above. See also “Disaster risk” and “Disaster scenario”. These may be classified as chronic stresses that either predispose a location to acute events (disasters) or hinder the recovery from them.
3. See also “Social construction of risk”.

Climate change as an everyday risk driver in Sudan 

of climate variability and change. By 2030, Sudan will have over 18 million poor people who are vulnerable to drought, flood and temperature hazards. IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report acknowledges that changes in climate system and socio-economic processes, including adaptation and mitigation actions, are drivers of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability.

Sudan has high exposure to several geophysical and climate related hazards. The World Bank’s Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery’s online tool “ThinkHazard!” classified as “high” the following hazards in Sudan: volcano hazard, river flooding hazard, extreme heat, wildfire, coastal flooding hazard and water scarcity hazard. Sudan is included in the list of 11 countries most at risk of disaster-induced poverty and inadequate capacity to minimize the impacts of disasters (ODI, 2013).